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ETHERNET INTERFACE

                ETHERNET – Quick Installation Guide

 

  • Connect the printer to your network (the IP address will be automatically assigned by your DHCP server)
  • Load tickets into the printer
  • Wait one minute to allow assignment of IP address
  • Print a test ticket to identify the printer's IP address
  • Ping the printer
  • Open your web browser and type the printer’s IP address to review its configuration
  • If you experience any problems, please refer to the Ethernet Interface Addendum or email mike@bocasystems.com

 

 

Warning

Ethernet is a network interface where the printer connects directly to your LAN.  This interface is very sensitive to timing issues that may be exacerbated by failing to follow the recommended printer communication protocols.   Specifically, the excessive use of the printer’s flash commands will result in significantly reduced ticket throughput and potential network problems.  We strongly recommend restricting the use of flash commands to periodic initialization routines.  Under no circumstances should flash commands be used on every ticket.  (Most lower case commands with the exception of <p>, <q>, <n> and <t> are flash commands.)

 

General

Each Boca Ethernet Printer is assigned a unique MAC address based in part on the printer's serial number.  All Boca printers are factory configured in DHCP enabled mode.  (Exceptions may be made by special request.)  If the printer is unable to get a dynamic IP address from the customer's network in the allotted time period (about one minute), it will default to the 10.0.0.192 address.  You can select a different fixed IP address either via a Web Browser or the printer’s control panel (available on certain models):

 

Set Static IP address

 

Web Browser (same Network number)

·         Set browser to 10.0.0.192

·         Change the Ethernet setting from DHCP ENABLED to YES

·         Enter desired IP address

·         Save

 

Control Panel

·         Activate control panel

·         Go to Ethernet

·         Change from DHCP ENABLED to YES

·         Enter IP Address

·         Save and Exit

 

Web Browser (different Network number)

·         Change the computer’s IP address to communicate with the printer

o    Connect the printer directly to the Host using an Ethernet crossover cable.

o    Check Control Panel>Network Connections>Local Area Connections>Properties

o    Scroll down and highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

o    Click properties.

o    Record the present settings on this screen before making any changes.

o    Click 'Use the following IP address'. Fill in the fields as follows:

o    IP address: 10.0.0.191

o    Subnet mask: 255:255:255:0

o    Default gateway 10.0.0.191

o    You can leave the DNS fields blank.

o    Click OK, then Close.

o    Wait 30 seconds.

 

You should now be able to ping the printer at 10.0.0.192.

 

·         Change the printer’s IP address to communicate on your network

o    Set browser to 10.0.0.192

o    Change the ETHERNET setting on the printer from DHCP ENABLED to YES

o    Enter the desired IP ADDRESS.

o    Do not change the printer’s subnet mask or default gateway

o    (A WAN using multiple gateways may require the setting of the default gateway and subnet mask.)

o    Save

 

·         Set the Computer back to its original settings (IP address, subnet mask, default gateway)

o    Remove the Ethernet crossover cable

o    Connect the computer and the printer to the network using standard Ethernet cables

o    Restore the computer’s original network settings in Control panel>Network Connections>Local Area Connections>Properties

 

 

NOTE: The printer's IP address is printed on the test ticket. If using DHCP, it may take up to one minute to obtain a valid IP address. Until then, it will display all zeros on the test ticket.

 

 

 

SUPPORTED PROTOCOLS (must use default port values).

 

While Boca does not support every Ethernet protocol, the printer supports a sufficient number of high level protocols to function effectively as a network printer.  Below is a list of supported and non-supported features of the printer.  More support may be added in the future as needed. 

 

 

CATEGORY

SUPPORTED FEATURE

UNSUPPORTED FEATURE

Frames

Ethernet version 2

IEEE 802.3

Ping

Number of echo requests

Loose source route along host - list

 

Buffer size

Strict source route along host - list

 

Record route

 

 

Time to live

 

 

Timestamp

 

ARP

ARP request

RARP request

 

ARP response

RARP response

 

 

Dynamic RARP request

 

 

Dynamic RARP response

 

 

InARP request

 

 

InARP reply

 

 

 

ICMP

Echo

Destination Unreachable

 

Echo Reply

Source Quench

 

Parameter Problem

Redirect

 

 

Time Exceeded

 

 

Timestamp

 

 

Timestamp Reply

 

 

Information Request

 

 

Information Reply

Address Mask Request

Address Mask Reply

Ipv4

Internet Timestamp

Loose Source and Record Route

 

Record Route

Strict Source and Record Route

 

Stream Identifier

Fragmented IP packets

 

Security - all levels accepted

 

TCP

MSS

All others (SACK, echo, etc.)

HTTP

GET, POST

HEAD

UDP

Supports DHCP datagrams

Presently no other UDP datagrams

DHCP

Automatic or Dynamic IP allocation

DHCP Release, DHCP Inform

 

 

Unsupported Protocols:

IPv6, SNMP, DNS, SMTP, TFTP, FTP, TELNET, IPP, DLC

 

 

Network ports (port monitors) supported:

Works with Microsoft Standard TCP/IP port - SNMP disabled

            Works with HP Standard TCP/IP port - SNMP disabled

            Works with Microsoft LPR port 

 

 

PING UTITITY

You can use the MS-DOS Ping command for diagnostic testing and to verify the network connection. 

·       ping  10.0.0.192   will ping the network printer 10.0.0.192 four times. 

 

NETWORK INTERFACES supported under TCP/IP

 

SUPPORTED INTERFACE

COMMENTS

Windows Socket API

Bi-directional Raw TCP protocol between printer and Host (port 9100)

LPD/LPR

Unidirectional LPD protocol data to printer (port 515)

 

All commands supported except “remove jobs”

 

 

UNSUPPORTED INTERFACE

COMMENTS

APP Socket

Raw TCP protocol data from Host to printer (port 9100)

 

Status returned to Host as UDP data on Port  9101

 

RAW TCP OPERATION

TCP communication is initiated by opening the connection (item 1) and terminated by closing the connection (item 4).   Item 2 is necessary to print tickets.   The printer can return status data (item 3) either in response to an external status request or as a result of a change in printer status.  Each item below must be completed with the indicated acknowledgement.  In the event that the item is not completed, the printer may initiate a timeout to close the port and discontinue the application (see Retransmit Command Timeout).  In the event that the connection remains open for an excessive amount of time, the printer may reset the connection and discontinue the application if another application requests service (see Idle Timeout Command).

 

  1. Host opens the connection / Printer acknowledges / Host acknowledges
  2. Host sends data / Printer acknowledges
  3. Printer sends data / Host acknowledges (RAW TCP only)
  4. Host closes the connection / Printer acknowledges / Host acknowledges

 

Please note that the printer will only allow one open connection at a time.  Normally, an application will open a connection and close it after the ticket data has been sent and all status has been received.  Any other applications requesting a connection will be refused until the original connection has been closed or the idle timeout period has expired.

 

 

WEB CONFIGURATION:

The printer can be configured across the network by typing in its IP address in the Address Bar of a Web Browser.  It will allow you to set the same configuration options available under the control panel Factory Menu.

 

 

 

CONTROL PANEL CONFIGURATION:

 
Changing ‘ETHERNET’ setting

 

  1. Please follow these steps to change the ETHERNET setting on your Ethernet printer.

 

  1. Depress both the MENU and CHOICES buttons while turning on the printer.  Keep both buttons depressed unit FACTORY MENU appears in the LCD window or the display starts scrolling through different topics.

  2. Using the MENU button scroll down to the ETHERNET? topic and press the CHOICE button.

  3. The blinking cursor indicates the current setting selected.  Every time you press the CHOICE button the setting option will change.

  4. Choose the appropriate setting.  Select ‘DHCP ENABLED’ for dynamic addressing or ‘YES’ for using a fixed IP address.

 

  1. Press the TEST button to enter that setting.

 

  1. Now the display will show EXIT AND SAVE.  Press the TEST button to save the setting entered.

 

  1. Note: if you selected ‘YES’ then you can use the default IP of 10.0.0.192 or set a different one as described next.

 

 

Changing ‘IP ADDRESS’

 

  1. Please follow these steps to change the fixed IP address on your Ethernet printer.  Note: if using a fixed IP address make sure the ‘ETHERNET’ setting is set to ‘YES’ (see above).

 

  1. Depress both the MENU and CHOICES buttons while turning on the printer.  Keep both buttons depressed unit FACTORY MENU appears in the LCD window or the display starts scrolling through different topics.

  2. Using the MENU button scroll down to the IP ADDRESS? topic and press the CHOICE button.

  3. The blinking cursor indicates the current IP numeric value selected.  Every time you press the CHOICE button the numeric value will change.

  4. Using the TEST button will move you over to the next numeric value.

  5. Continue steps 4 & 5 to program the desired IP address value.

  6. At the end the display will show EXIT AND SAVE.  Press the TEST button to save the IP address you just entered.

 

 

 

FGL NETWORKING COMMANDS:

 

ETHERNET MODE COMMAND - <eth#>

This command sets the Ethernet mode for the printer and is permanently stored in flash. This can also be set using the 'Factory Menu'.  The values can range as shown below:

 

0 - NO - Ethernet Interface disabled

1 - YES - Ethernet Interface enabled (uses static IP address).

2 - Ethernet DIAGNOSTIC Mode  - (prints all packets transmitted or received by the printer).

3 - Ethernet Diagnostic VALID PACKET Mode  - (prints only valid packets transmitted or received by the printer).

4 - DHCP ENABLED (automatically attempts to get an IP address from Local Server).

5 - DHCP/SUB/GATE (automatically attempts to get an IP address/Subnet Mask/Gateway from  Local Server).

6 - DHCP/NR* (automatically attempts to get an IP address from Local Server and then register the name with the local NetBIOS name server – usually the WINS Server).

7 - DHCP/SUB/GATE/NR* (automatically attempts to get an IP address/Subnet Mask/Gateway from Local Server and then register the name with the local NetBIOS name server – usually the WINS Server ).

 

 

Notes: Ethernet Diagnostic Modes should only be used after consulting with Boca Systems.

 

The DHCP enabled function will cause the printer to automatically attempt to retrieve a ‘permanent’ IP address from a Local Server after powering on.  If the server does not assign a ‘permanent’ one, then it will allocate an address for a limited period of time (lease time).  If this is the case, the printer will automatically try and renew its lease before it expires.  If DHCP is enabled, but no response is received from a Local Server in time, the printer will revert back to its default IP. For convenience, the printer’s IP address is now printed on the Test Ticket.

 

*New Feature (implemented November 2007 )

The Name Registration option is only available with Dynamic (DHCP) addressing.  The printer will attempt to register the name as BOCA# where # stands for the serial number of the printer (ex. BOCA123456).  If the registration is successful, you should be able to ping, print or access the Web Menu simply by using the printer name instead of the actual IP address. For example, you should be able to type BOCA123456 in a Web Browser and access the printer’s Web Menu or ping it using ping BOCA123456.

 

Once the Subnet has been set either automatically or by the customer it will remain set. It is up to the customer to reset it to 0.0.0.0 if they do not want the printer to try and use the Gateway.  For ex. if it was set using the DHCP/SUB/GATE mode and then the Ethernet mode was changed to DHCP the printer will get a dynamic IP address and still use the previous Subnet and Gateway settings.  The Subnet can be cleared through the Control Panel Menu, the Web Menu or using the <sub0> command below.

 

 

MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL NUMBER COMMAND - <MAC>

This command returns the MAC number (Ethernet address) for the printer in the form ##.##.##.##.##.##.  The MAC is used by hardware devices on the network to communicate with each other.  It is set at the factory and can’t be changed by the user. 

 

INTERNET PROTOCOL ADDRESS COMMAND - <IP>

This command returns the IP address of the printer in the form ###.###.###.###.  The IP address is used by applications on  ‘direct’ networks to communicate with each other.  The default address is 10.0.0.192.  This address can be changed by the user.  See next command.

 

PERMANENT PROTOCOL ADDRESS COMMAND - <ip10.0.1.25>

This command permanently changes the IP address of the printer and stores it in flash.  The example above would change the address to 10.0.1.25.  The IP address can also be changed using the ‘Factory or Web Menu’. The default address is 10.0.0.192.  Note: IP address 0.0.0.0 is reserved.

 

IDLE TIMEOUT COMMAND - <idt#>

This command permanently stores the timeout value (#) in flash.  The value (#) can range from 1-65535 seconds.   The printer will reset the open connection after # seconds of inactivity if another application is seeking to communicate with the printer.   In this case, a reset (RST packet) will be sent to the open connection, and any previously stored data will be flushed.  The default setting is 30 seconds.

 

This command permanently stores the Retransmit Timeout value in flash. The value (#) can range from 1-65535 seconds.  This command sets the total timeout period for a network port connection to remain open if there is a problem communicating between ports.  Normally, after 2s, the Boca printer will retransmit data that has failed to be acknowledged by the Host TCP.  Then it will wait 4s, then 8s, etc.  After a total of 300s, the Boca will send a RST packet and terminate the connection.  Any previously stored data will be flushed.  The default setting is 300 seconds.

 

 

NEW FGL NETWORKING COMMANDS: Available in versions FGL44B5 and above.

 

Previous firmware versions did not allow you to assign a subnet mask or default gateway.  The printer would always send packets directly to the destination host.  This would work on all directly connected networks.  This is referred to as a ‘direct route’.  Sometimes it is necessary to run the printer on an indirectly connected network.  It must send its responses through a gateway in order to reach the destination host.  Therefore, we have added the Subnet Mask and Default Gateway commands to the printer.  They can also be set through the control panel and Web Menus.

 

DEFAULT GATEWAY MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL NUMBER COMMAND - <DGM>

This command returns the MAC number (Ethernet address) for the Default Gateway in the form ##.##.##.##.##.##.  The MAC is used by hardware devices on the network to communicate with each other.  The Gateway MAC is obtained during initialization (see Note under Permanent Subnet Mask command).

 

DEFAULT GATEWAY IP ADDRESS COMMAND - <DGW>

This command returns the IP address of the Default Gateway in the form ###.###.###.###. The Gateway IP number is used by applications on ‘indirect’ networks to communicate with each other.  The default address is 10.0.0.192.  This address can be changed by the user (see below).

 

PERMANENT DEFAULT GATEWAY IP ADDRESS COMMAND - <dgw10.0.1.254>

Note: This function should only be used by an experienced user.

This command permanently changes the IP address of the default gateway and stores it in flash.  The example above would change the address to 10.0.1.254.  The Gateway Address can also be changed using the ‘Factory or Web Menu’. The default address is 10.0.0.192.  Note: the subnet value must be non-zero in order for the Gateway Address to be valid (see below).

 

SUBNET MASK COMMAND - <SUB>

This command returns the Subnet Mask for the network in the form ###.###.###.###.  The Subnet Mask is used by the printer to determine if the destination is on a connected network (direct route).  If not, it is sent to the Gateway Address.  The default mask is 0 (0.0.0.0).  This value can be changed by the user.  Do not change the Subnet Mask from zero unless you are using a Gateway.  See next command.

 

PERMANENT SUBNET MASK COMMAND - <sub#>

Note: This function should only be used by an experienced user.

This command permanently changes the Subnet Mask for the network and stores it in flash. The Subnet Mask can also be changed using the ‘Factory or Web Menu’. The default mask is 0 (0.0.0.0).  This is a reserved value and is used by the printer to indicate there is no subnet.  Thus the printer will treat all  packets as if they are on a ‘direct route’.  If you want packets sent to the Gateway Address you must assign one of the following non-zero values (1-32):

 

0      0.0.0.0    (reserved)                              17   255.255.128.0  (class C)

1      128.0.0.0   (class A)                             18   255.255.192.0     

2      192.0.0.0                                            19   255.255.224.0     

3      224.0.0.0                                            20  255.255.240.0      

4      240.0.0.0                                            21  255.255.248.0      

5      248.0.0.0                                            22  255.255.252.0      

6      252.0.0.0                                            23  255.255.254.0      

7      254.0.0.0                                            24  255.255.255.0      

8      255.0.0.0                                            25  255.255.255.128

9      255.128.0.0 (class B)                           26  255.255.255.192

10   255.192.0.0                                        27  255.255.255.224

11   255.224.0.0                                        28  255.255.255.240

12   255.240.0.0                                        29  255.255.255.248

13   255.248.0.0                                        30  255.255.255.252

14   255.252.0.0                                        31  255.255.255.254  (unusable)

15   255.254.0.0                                        32  255.255.255.255 (host-single address)

16   255.255.0.0     

 

Note: If a Subnet Mask and Gateway Address have been provided, the printer will attempt to obtain the Gateway’s MAC address (using the ARP protocol) during initialization of the printer.  If it is unable to establish communication with the Gateway after a number of tries, it will treat the Gateway as a ‘Dead Gateway’.  In this case, all packets meant for the Gateway will be silently discarded.  If the Gateway’s MAC address is obtained,  then that ‘indirect route’ will be used for all off-network packets.  The MAC address will be ‘persistent’ until the printer is reset or power cycled.  Do not change the Subnet Mask from zero unless you are using a Gateway.

 

 

 

ETHERNET PORT CONFIGURATION - <epc#>   Available in versions FGL44B28 and above.

Normally, the printer will auto-negotiate its port configuration with the network.  Some customers have asked for the ability to manually set the speed and duplex settings of the Ethernet port. This command permanently stores the selected port settings in flash. The values (#) can range as shown below:

0      - Auto-negotiate

1      - 100 Mbps/Full duplex

2      - 100 Mbps/Half duplex

3      - 10 Mbps/Full duplex

4      - 10 Mbps/Half duplex

 

 

Using the Ethernet Interface

You can configure the Ethernet interface to communicate with your printer either directly across the network or as a shared device attached to a specific computer.  Below are some of the options available in a Windows 2000 environment.  Most of these should also be available under Windows XP.   Other operating systems (like UNIX) should have similar capabilities to the ones shown below.

 

 

NETWORK INTERFACES

 

.WINDOWS SOCKET API

The use of Windows Socket API calls allows the user bi-directional communication across the network and full control of the process.  A sample freeware program called Netcat works with the printer and can be used as is, modified or referred to as a guideline for writing your own program.

 

.DOS COMMANDS

LPR and LPQ commands allow the user to talk directly to the printer across the network.

 

LPR - prints a file to any network device (BOCA printer) running an LPD server

lpr -SServer -PPrinter [-CClass] [-JJobname] [-O option] filename

 

Parameters

-SServer > Specifies the name or IP address of the computer or the print device running LPD.

-PPrinter  > Specifies the name of the printer for the desired queue.

-CClass > Specifies the content of the banner page for the class.

-JJobname > Specifies the name of this job.

-O option > Indicates the type of file. The default is a text file. Use -Ol (lowercase 'L') for a binary file (for example, PostScript).

filename > The name of the file to be printed.

ex.  lpr  -S10.0.0.192  -Pboca  p.txt       Sends the file p.txt to the printer with IP address 10.0.0.192

 

LPQ - requests printer status

lpq -SServer -PPrinter [-l]

 

Parameters

-SServer > Specifies the name of the computer or print device running LPD.

-PPrinter > Specifies the name of the printer for the desired queue.

-l (Lowercase L) > Specifies that a detailed status should be given.

 

Note: specifying the command without the lowercase L returns a generic printer ok status message if the printer is not busy (see below).  However, the printer will not accept the command if it is busy, so nothing is usually returned until the printer is ready again.

 

ex.  lpq  -S10.0.0.192  -Pboca     Normally returns a ‘Boca Systems lpd: no jobs queued on this port’ message (printer ok).

 

ex.  lpq  -S10.0.0.192  -Pboca  -l     Returns detailed status for boca queue print job on printer with IP address 10.0.0.192.  Note: this will include all of the printer status bytes described in the ‘Printer Status Supplement’ in the programming guide.

 

 

.Shared device

The printer may be installed as a shared device on a Network Port using either an LPR port or a Standard TCP/IP port (See installation instructions at the end of this document).  As a shared device, it is possible to redirect one of the LPT# ports to a network port allowing all of Boca's sample VB, VC, 'C' and GWBasic programs to work across the network.  Redirection is accomplished by using the MS-DOS command Net Use.  Choose a port name on your PC that is not being used (such as LPT2:).  The syntax of the command is:

 

Net Use LPT2: \\networkPCname\printersharename      ex.  Net Use LPT2:  \\panther\tcpprint

 

At this point, any copy command issued to LPT2: on your PC will be redirected across your network to the Boca Systems Inc. printer named tcpprint attached to PC panther.  Although the printer can be written to across the network by this method, the data returned from the printer can't be read back.  For further details on Net Use, refer to your DOS manual or use Windows Help mode. 

 

 


Ethernet Trouble-shooting guide....

 

MAC conflicts:

You must make sure there are no MAC address conflicts between multiple Boca Printers and any other devices on your network. Though it should never be the case, there was once an instance where two Boca Printers had the same MAC.  The printer’s MAC address is based on its serial number.  Changing the printer’s serial number might cause a problem.

 

Packet loss:

Determine if you are losing packets. To test for packet loss, ping the printer 1000 times. Use the ‘ping –n 1000 –l 1472  printers IP address’ command.  Let us know how many packets are lost. We have found that if a customer is losing a lot of packets (more than 10) we may be able to improve this by shortening the internal ribbon cable to the Ethernet card.   Note: the –l 1472 parameter in the ping command tests the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) of the network.  It should be able to handle IP datagrams up to 1472 bytes.

 

LPR vs RAW TCP:

If you are having a problem using LPR mode make sure the 'byte counting enabled' option is set. Try running in RAW TCP mode or vice versa.

 

Windows Driver vs Windows Socket API:

Are you using a Windows Driver or writing directly to the printer using Windows Socket API calls? Try both approaches if possible and see if one is better than the other.

 

Printer Timeout issues:

Is the printer timing out during the retransmission of a packet or in an idle state? Try playing with the following commands to see if it improves performance.  The commands are explained above.

IDLE TIMEOUT COMMAND - <idt#>

RETRANSMIT TIMEOUT COMMAND - <rtt#>

 

Host Timeout issues:

Please refer to the following Microsoft Articles for possible solutions.

‘How to Modify the TCP/IP Maximum Retransmission Timeout’ - Article: 170359

‘TCP/IP Port Printing May Be Slow on Windows 2000’ - Article ID: 816627

‘TCP/IP and NBT configuration parameters for Windows 2000 or Windows NT’ - Article ID: 120642

 

Problem printing large batches of tickets:

Try changing your system so it does not create a new print job for every ticket. In this case, the printer works better and faster.  Try to limit the number of jobs opened and closed.   You can also try sending a large batch of tickets in a series of smaller batches.  If possible, hook up an HP Jetdirect Print Server to the printer (requires a parallel port) and see if the problem still exists. If so, it is probably a Network issue on the client’s end (likely a bandwidth, configuration, slow link or router problem).

 

 

Client Network Problems:

Several clients had problems initially but they turned out to be networking issues on their end

(bandwidth problems, configuration settings, etc).  Make sure everything is configured correctly on the Network.

 

 

 

Auto-Negotiate problem:

One client had an issue where his switches would not auto-negotiate correctly with the printer.  Try manually setting your switches to 100 Mbps, Full duplex.

 

 

Monitor traffic:

Are you able to monitor the Ethernet traffic between the Host and printer? Can you determine if the printer is not responding to a particular packet or is going busy? Is it losing packets? Can you send us a copy of the packet traffic at the point it fails?

 

Installing a packet sniffer program would greatly assist us in diagnosing this problem. It is recommended that you use the same one we do so that the captured packet data can be analyzed here.

You can obtain a  free packet sniffer called 'Ethereal' from the following link- http://www.ethereal.com/distribution/win32/.

 

Important Note: On a switched network, in order to see all the network traffic, both the Boca and computer should be connected to a non-switched hub.  Some switches have the ability to replicate all traffic on all ports to a single port so that you can plug your analyzer into that single port to sniff all traffic. See the section below titled 'Capturing Packets'  for more details.

 

1.     Install Ethereal on the same computer that the Boca was initially installed on. 

2.     Under 'capture' > 'options' select a buffer size necessary to capture all the packets that might be sent during the test. This will vary depending on the network traffic, the amount of tickets sent and what the problem is. If the problem is one where the printer stops printing after a large amount of tickets are sent then we recommend you set as large a buffer as possible.

3.     Under 'capture' > 'options' select an interface (there are sometimes several to chose from). Then start capturing.

4.     Stop after a few seconds and make sure you see packets being captured or else you must select a different interface.

5.     Restart capturing packets.

6.     Send print jobs to the printer.

7.     After a problem develops, stop the capture immediately. Note: If the problem is one where the printer stops printing you should wait up to 5 minutes before stopping the capture. This allows us to see if your system has stopped sending us data for some reason.

8.     Save the project under the 'file' tab.

9.     Email file to us along with a description of the events that happened during the capture session. Include the appropriate IP addresses so we can identify the printer and server packets.

 

Capturing Packets: (source - http://www.ethereal.com/faq.html#q7.1)

 

Q 7.1: When I use Ethereal to capture packets, why do I see only packets to and from my machine, or not see all the traffic I'm expecting to see from or to the machine I'm trying to monitor?

 

A: This might be because the interface on which you're capturing is plugged into an Ethernet or Token Ring switch; on a switched network, unicast traffic between two ports will not necessarily appear on other ports - only broadcast and multicast traffic will be sent to all ports.   Note that even if your machine is plugged into a hub, the "hub" may be a switched hub, in which case you're still on a switched network.

 

Note also that on the Linksys Web site, they say that their auto-sensing hubs "broadcast the 10Mb packets to the port that operate at 10Mb only and broadcast the 100Mb packets to the ports that operate at 100Mb only", which would indicate that if you sniff on a 10Mb port, you will not see traffic coming sent to a 100Mb port, and vice versa. This problem has also been reported for Netgear dual-speed hubs, and may exist for other "auto-sensing" or "dual-speed" hubs.

 

Some switches have the ability to replicate all traffic on all ports to a single port so that you can plug your analyzer into that single port to sniff all traffic. You would have to check the documentation for the switch to see if this is possible and, if so, to see how to do this. See the switch reference page on the Ethereal Wiki for information on some switches. (Note that it's a Wiki, so you can update or fix that information, or add additional information on those switches or information on new switches, yourself.)

 

Note also that many firewall/NAT boxes have a switch built into them; this includes many of the "cable/DSL router" boxes. If you have a box of that sort, that has a switch with some number of Ethernet ports into which you plug machines on your network, and another Ethernet port used to connect to a cable or DSL modem, you can, at least, sniff traffic between the machines on your network and the Internet by plugging the Ethernet port on the router going to the modem, the Ethernet port on the modem, and the machine on which you're running Ethereal into a hub (make sure it's not a switching hub, and that, if it's a dual-speed hub, all three of those ports are running at the same speed.

 

If your machine is not plugged into a switched network or a dual-speed hub, or it is plugged into a switched network but the port is set up to have all traffic replicated to it, the problem might be that the network interface on which you're capturing doesn't support "promiscuous" mode, or because your OS can't put the interface into promiscuous mode. Normally, network interfaces supply to the host only:

·       packets sent to one of that host's link-layer addresses;

·       broadcast packets;

·       multicast packets sent to a multicast address that the host has configured the interface to accept.

 

Most network interfaces can also be put in "promiscuous" mode, in which they supply to the host all network packets they see. Ethereal will try to put the interface on which it's capturing into promiscuous mode unless the "Capture packets in promiscuous mode" option is turned off in the "Capture Options" dialog box, and Tethereal will try to put the interface on which it's capturing into promiscuous mode unless the -p option was specified. However, some network interfaces don't support promiscuous mode, and some OSes might not allow interfaces to be put into promiscuous mode.

 

If the interface is not running in promiscuous mode, it won't see any traffic that isn't intended to be seen by your machine. It will see broadcast packets, and multicast packets sent to a multicast MAC address the interface is set up to receive.

 

You should ask the vendor of your network interface whether it supports promiscuous mode. If it does, you should ask whoever supplied the driver for the interface (the vendor, or the supplier of the OS you're running on your machine) whether it supports promiscuous mode with that network interface.

 

In the case of token ring interfaces, the drivers for some of them, on Windows, may require you to enable promiscuous mode in order to capture in promiscuous mode. See the Ethereal Wiki item on Token Ring capturing for details.

 

In the case of wireless LAN interfaces, it appears that, when those interfaces are promiscuously sniffing, they're running in a significantly different mode from the mode that they run in when they're just acting as network interfaces (to the extent that it would be a significant effor for those drivers to support for promiscuously sniffing and acting as regular network interfaces at the same time), so it may be that Windows drivers for those interfaces don't support promiscuous mode.

 

Q 7.2: When I capture with Ethereal, why can't I see any TCP packets other than packets to and from my machine, even though another analyzer on the network sees those packets?

 

A: You're probably not seeing any packets other than unicast packets to or from your machine, and broadcast and multicast packets; a switch will normally send to a port only unicast traffic sent to the MAC address for the interface on that port, and broadcast and multicast traffic - it won't send to that port unicast traffic sent to a MAC address for some other interface - and a network interface not in promiscuous mode will receive only unicast traffic sent to the MAC address for that interface, broadcast traffic, and multicast traffic sent to a multicast MAC address the interface is set up to receive.

 

TCP doesn't use broadcast or multicast, so you will only see your own TCP traffic, but UDP services may use broadcast or multicast so you'll see some UDP traffic - however, this is not a problem with TCP traffic, it's a problem with unicast traffic, as you also won't see all UDP traffic between other machines.

I.e., this is probably the same question as this earlier one; see the response to that question.

 

Q 7.3: Why am I only seeing ARP packets when I try to capture traffic?

 

A: You're probably on a switched network, and running Ethereal on a machine that's not sending traffic to the switch and not being sent any traffic from other machines on the switch. ARP packets are often broadcast packets, which are sent to all switch ports.

 

Q 7.4: Individual tickets are printed in one to two seconds, but I occasionally have delays of up to ten seconds between tickets.  What’s happening?

 

A: You're probably sending flash commands on every ticket.  Try eliminating all flash commands from the ticket data.


 

Installation of port monitor instructions:

 

Note: Please make sure you have either the HP LaserJet llP Plus Print driver or the appropriate Boca FGL Print driver installed before continuing with these instructions (see website for FGL driver).

 

Installing a Standard TCP/IP port using Raw protocol on Windows 2000 (preferred method).

1.   Open the Control Panel through the Start Menu and open Printers.

2.   Double click Add Printer.

3.   Click Next.

4.   Select Local printer, clear the Automatically detect my printer check box, and then click Next.

5.   Select Create a new port.

6.   Choose Standard TCP/IP Port from the "Type" drop down menu.  You may have to scroll all the way down to the bottom.

7:   Click Next.

8:   Enter the IP address of the printer into the Printer Name or IP Address field (ex. 10.0.0.192).

      The Port Name is filled in automatically.  You may change it if you wish.

9:   Enter the name you wish to call the printer in the Port Name field (ex. BOCA).

10. Click Next and wait for a bit.

11. Set Device Type to Custom and click Settings.

12. Set Protocol to Raw.

13. Make sure Port Number is set to 9100.

14. Leave SNMP Status Enabled unchecked.

15. Click OK, then click Next, then click Finish and wait a bit.

16. Choose Boca-> appropriate dpi version and click Next.  Choose HP -> HP laserJet llP Plus if using a PCL4 BOCA printer.

17. If it tells you the driver is already installed, keep existing driver and just click Next.

18. Enter the name you wish to call the printer in the Printer Name field (ex. tcpprinter).

     Decide if you want it as your default printer.

19. Click Next.

20.  Decide if you want to share the printer - if so, give it a 'share' name (ex. tcpprint).

21. Click Next.

22. Give it a location/comment description if desired.

23. Click Next.

24. Select No or Yes for Do you want to print a test page?

25. Click Next and then click Finish.

26. If you elected to print a test page it should print after clicking Finish.

 

Note: The Standard TCP/IP port (shown above) is the only method we support which allows for detailed status to be reported back to the Host via the bi-directional Raw TCP protocol. 

 

Installing an LPR port on Windows 2000.

1. To open Printers, click Start, point to Settings, and then click Printers.

2. Double-click Add Printer, and then click Next.

3. Click Local printer, clear the Automatically detect my printer check box, and then click Next.

4. Click Create a new port, and then click LPR Port.  If LPR Port is not available, click Cancel to stop the wizard.   To add the LPR port, you need to install Print Services for Unix.

5. Click Next, and then provide the following information:

-  In Name or address of server providing LPD, type the DNS name or Internet Protocol (IP) address of the host for the printer you are adding.  You can also enter the DNS name or IP address of the direct-connect TCP/IP printing device (the boca printer) or the UNIX computer to which the printing device is connected (ex. 10.0.0.192). The DNS name can be the name specified for the host in the Hosts file.

-  In Name of printer or print queue on that server, type the name of the printer as it is identified by the Host, which is either the direct-connect printer itself or the UNIX computer.

6. Choose Boca-> appropriate dpi version and click Next.  Choose HP -> HP laserJet llP Plus if using a PCL4 BOCA  printer.

7. If it tells you the driver is already installed, keep existing driver and just click Next.

8. Enter the name you wish to call the printer in the Printer Name field (ex. lprprinter).  Decide if you want it as your default printer.

9. Click Next.

10 Decide if you want to share the printer - if so, give it a 'share' name (ex. lprprint).

11. Click Next.

12. Give it a location/comment description if desired.

13. Click Next.

14. Select No or Yes for Do you want to print a test page?

15. Click Next and then click Finish.

16. If you elected to print a test page it should print after clicking Finish.

 

 Notes:

.The LPR port is best suited to servers that need to communicate with host computers such as UNIX or VAX machines by way of RFC 1179.

.For computers that need to submit print jobs to host computers, the standard TCP/IP port (see above) should be used in most cases. 

.The LPR port only allows limited printer status to be reported to the Host.  A generic error condition is reported when something goes wrong like a paper jam or paper out. 

 

 

Installing a Standard TCP/IP port using simplified LPR protocol on Windows 2000.

1.   Open the Control Panel through the Start Menu and open Printers.

2.   Double click Add Printer.

3.   Click Next.

4.   Select Local printer, clear the Automatically detect my printer check box, and then click

    Next.

5.   Select Create a new port.

6.   Choose Standard TCP/IP Port from the "Type" drop down menu.  You may have to scroll all 

      the way down to the bottom.

7:   Click Next.

8:   Enter the IP address of the printer into the Printer Name or IP Address field (ex. 10.0.0.192).

      The Port Name is filled in automatically.  You may change it if you wish.

9:   Enter the name you wish to call the printer in the Port Name field (ex. BOCA).

10. Click Next and wait for a bit.

11. Set Device Type to Custom and click Settings.

12. Set Protocol to LPR.

13. Enter the name you wish to call the printer in the Queue Name field.

14. Check the LPR Byte Counting Enabled check box.

15. Leave SNMP Status Enabled unchecked.

16. Click OK, then click Next, then click Finish and wait a bit.

17. Choose Boca-> appropriate dpi version and click Next.  Choose HP -> HP laserJet llP Plus if using a PCL4 BOCA printer.

18. If it tells you the driver is already installed, keep existing driver and just click Next.

19. Enter the name you wish to call the printer in the Printer Name field (ex. lprprinter).

     Decide if you want it as your default printer.

20. Click Next.

21. Decide if you want to share the printer - if so, give it a 'share' name (ex. lprprint).

22. Click Next.

23. Give it a location/comment description if desired.

24. Click Next.

25. Select No or Yes for Do you want to print a test page?

26. Click Next and then click Finish.

27. If you elected to print a test page it should print after clicking Finish.

 

 

Notes:

The simplified LPR protocol differs from an RFC 1179 compliant LPR port in that it only supports the printer implementations of LPR.  A machine running an LPD service (like a UNIX box) cannot be designated as the destination.  Only LPD capable printers can be the destination for print jobs.  The simplified LPR protocol can use non-RFC source port addresses (other than 721-731).   Simplified LPR also allows for disabling of byte counting which is always on with an RFC-compliant LPR port.

BocaSystems


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